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Sho Dynasty

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  • Japanese: 尚王統 (Shou outou)

The Shô family which ruled the Ryûkyû Kingdom was in fact two separate lineages.

After Hashi, king of Chûzan, conquered the kingdoms of Hokuzan and Nanzan, uniting the island of Okinawa and establishing the Ryûkyû Kingdom in 1429, he was granted the name Shô (C: Shang) by the Ming Court as a royal surname, and was recognized as the legitimate ruler of Ryûkyû as a tributary state. This name, which might have a connotation of being loyally "in service of royal affairs,"[1] was then passed down as the royal, dynastic, surname of the Kings of Ryûkyû.

A few decades later, in 1469, a high-ranking government official & court aristocrat, Kanamaru, staged a coup, overthrowing the First Shô Dynasty, and installing himself (and his descendants) as king of Ryûkyû. As part of efforts to establish his legitimacy, he took the name Shô, so as to give some impression of a continuation of a Shô family as the rulers of the kingdom, despite being of no actual blood relation. He took the name King Shô En for himself, and passed on the name Shô to his descendants; thus began the Second Shô Dynasty.

Each king was memorialized in an official posthumous royal portrait known as an ogoe (御後絵) in Japanese. These survive today only in black-and-white pre-war reproductions, as all the full-color painted originals were destroyed in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa.[2]

Lineage of the First Shô Dynasty

  • Shô Shishô (d. 1421) - 1st king of the Shô Dynasty
    • Shô Hashi (1371-1439) - son of Shô Shishô, 2nd king of the Shô Dynasty, united Okinawa and established Ryûkyû Kingdom
      • Shô Chû (1391-1444) - 2nd son of Shô Hashi, 3rd king of the Shô Dynasty
        • Shô Shitatsu (1408-1449) - son of Shô Chû, 4th king of the Shô Dynasty
      • Shô Kinpuku (1398-1453) - 6th son of Shô Hashi, 5th king of the Shô Dynasty
      • Shô Taikyû (d. 1461) - 7th son of Shô Hashi, 6th king of the Shô Dynasty
        • Shô Toku (1441-1469) - son of Shô Taikyû, 7th king of the Shô Dynasty

Lineage of the Second Shô Dynasty

  • Shô Shoku
    • Shô Sen'i (r. 1477) - 2nd king of Second Shô Dynasty, son of Shô Shoku
    • Shô En (r. 1470-1476, aka Kanamaru) - founder of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Shoku
      • Yosoidon - second wife of Shô En
      • Shô Shin (r. 1477-1526) - 3rd king of Second Shô Dynasty, son of Shô En & Yosoidon
        • Sho Ikô (Urasoe Chôman) - eldest son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Chôrai - second son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Shôi - third son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Ryûtoku - fourth son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Kyôjin - sixth son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Gendô - seventh son of Shô Shin
        • Shô Sei (r. 1527-1555) - 4th king of Second Shô Dynasty, fifth son of Shô Shin
          • Shô Tei - eldest son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Yôsô - third son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Kanshin - fourth son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Kan - fifth son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Hangoku - sixth son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Sôken - seventh son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Kôtoku - eighth son of Shô Sei
          • Shô Gen (r. 1556-1572) - 5th king of Second Shô Dynasty, second son of Shô Sei
            • Shô Kôhaku - eldest son of Shô Gen
            • Shô Ei (r. 1573-1588) - 6th king of Second Shô Dynasty, second son of Shô Gen
            • Shô Kyû - third son of Shô Gen
              • Shô Ken - eldest son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Kan - second son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Tei - third son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Sei (Kin Chôtei) - fifth son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Ô - sixth son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Kyô (Kume Gushikawa Chôei) - seventh son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Zenku - eighth son of Shô Kyû
              • Shô Hô (r. 1621-1640) - 8th king of Second Shô Dynasty, fourth son of Shô Kyû
                • Shô Kyô - eldest son of Shô Hô
                • Shô Bun - second son of Shô Hô
                • Shô Ken (r. 1641-1647) - 9th king of Second Shô Dynasty, third son of Shô Hô
                • Shô Shitsu (r. 1648-1668) - 10th king of Second Shô Dynasty, fourth son of Shô Hô
                  • Shô Kôki - second son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Kônin - third son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Kôsai - fourth son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Kôtoku - fifth son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Kôshin - sixth son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Kôzen - seventh son of Shô Shitsu
                  • Shô Tei (r. 1669-1709) - 11th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Shitsu
                    • Shô Kei (Tomigusuku Chôryô) - second son of Shô Tei
                    • Shô Mô (Oroku Chôki) - third son of Shô Tei
                    • Shô Ki - fourth son of Shô Tei
                    • Shô Jun - eldest son of Shô Tei
                      • Shô Kan (Noguni Chôchoku) - second son of Shô Jun
                      • Shô Sei (Goeku Chôtoku) - third son of Shô Jun
                      • Shô Eki (r. 1710-1712) - 12th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Jun
                        • Shô Tetsu - second son of Shô Eki
                        • Shô Kei (r. 1713-1752) - 13th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Eki
                          • Shô Wa - second son of Shô Kei
                          • Shô Boku (r. 1752-1795) - 14th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Kei
                            • Shô To - second son of Shô Boku
                            • Shô Shû - third son of Shô Boku
                            • Shô Yô (Ginowan Chôshô) - fourth son of Shô Boku
                            • Shô Kaku - fifth son of Shô Boku
                            • Shô Tetsu - eldest son of Shô Boku
                              • Shô Hô - eldest son of Shô Tetsu
                              • Shô On (r. 1795-1802) - 15th king of Second Shô Dynasty, second son of Shô Tetsu
                                • Shô Sei (r. 1803-1804) - 16th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô On
                              • Shô Kô - third son of Shô Tetsu
                              • Shô Kô (r. 1804-1834) - 17th king of Second Shô Dynasty, fourth son of Shô Tetsu
                                • Shô Yô - second son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Jun (Ôzato Chôkyô) - third son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô I - fourth son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Ken (Ie Chôchoku) - fifth son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Ken (Yoshimura Chôshô) - sixth son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Shin (Tamagawa Chôtatsu) - seventh son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Ten - eighth son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Shû (Nago Chôboku) - ninth son of Shô Kô
                                • Shô Iku (r. 1835-1847) - 18th king of Second Shô Dynasty, eldest son of Shô Kô
                                  • Shô Shun - eldest son of Shô Iku
                                  • Shô Hitsu - third son of Shô Iku
                                  • Shô Tai (r. 1848-1879) - 19th and final king of Second Shô Dynasty, second son of Shô Iku
                                    • Shô Ten - eldest son of Shô Tai, final Crown Prince of Ryûkyû
                                    • Shô In - second son of Shô Tai
                                    • Shô Kyô - third son of Shô Tai
                                    • Shô Jun - fourth son of Shô Tai
                                    • Shô Shû (Tamagusuku Shôshû) - fifth son of Shô Tai
                                    • Shô Kô - sixth son of Shô Tai
                                    • Shô Ji - seventh son of Shô Tai

References

  • Miyakonojô to Ryûkyû ôkoku 都城と琉球王国, Miyakonojô Shimazu Residence (2012), 5.
  1. Chan, Ying Kit. “A Bridge between Myriad Lands: The Ryukyu Kingdom and Ming China (1372-1526).” MA Thesis, National University of Singapore, 2010, 29n76. http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/20602.
  2. Gallery labels, Shuri castle.
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