- Japanese: 起請文 (kishoumon)
Kishômon were a type of blood oath regularly sworn by samurai retainers in the Sengoku and Edo periods, swearing fealty to their lord, and inviting the wrath of the gods should they violate the oath. These oaths were not only signed by name, in ink, but also in blood, typically by thumbprint.
Daimyô frequently swore a three-part oath, swearing to obey all shogunal laws strictly, to keep their own house from wickedness, and to serve their lord (i.e. the shogun) diligently. The oath was sealed with blood, and ended with a formulaic statement, common in Edo period oaths, listing deities which would exact retribution against the speaker should he violate the oath. Daimyô required similar oaths of their retainers, in turn.
- Mark Ravina, Land and Lordship in Early Modern Japan, Stanford University Press (1999), 35.