In 1839, Chôei was rounded up with many other rangaku scholars and sentenced to life in prison. While in prison he wrote a treatise on Western learning in Japan called Bansha Sôyaku Shôki (A Short Record of a Meeting with Misfortune). The book examines the history of Western knowledge entering Japan from the Sengoku Period to the 1830's. He eventually escaped prison, and hid out for a time in Uwajima han, and then in the Aoyama neighborhood of Edo, but when he was found again by shogunate officials, he committed suicide rather than be captured again.
- Kosaka, Masaaki. (David Abosch, Trans.) Japanese Thought in the Meiji Era, Pan-Pacific Press, Tokyo, 1958