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Ritsuryo

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The Ritsuryō 律令 system was a code of law developed starting in the 7th century and came to its peak in the Heian Period. It defined a system of ranks (kan'i)官位 and positions within the government, as well as a code of law regarding land usage, religious matters, etc.

Contents

Ritsuryō Government Positions

The positions within the government changed over the centuries, so at any given time the positions noted here may or may not have been in effect (though many of them do seem to have stayed the same). Although the Tennō and various members of the royal family were still at the official head of the government, most of the actual administration was handled by the daijōkan 太政官, the council of the ranking ministers of state.

Most positions were attached to a certain rank, although it was not guaranteed that the holder of the office would be of the rank specified. Some positions appear to have had general rank guidelines instead of strict adherences. Other times, an officeholder may be of a greater rank than the office he held. For now, the list below is organized by rank, so some offices may show up more than once, depending on whether or not the precise rank is given (or known).

Also, some offices had a different numbers of officeholders, and occasionally you even had supernumerary positions, usually indicated by the prefix 'Gon'権. Another common prefix was 'Tō'藤, indicating a member of the Fujiwara 藤原 who held the office, although at many times this was almost superfluous as the Fujiwara held most of the high-ranking offices within the government when they were at the peak of their power.

Jingikan (神祗官)

Head (Haku 伯)
Senior Assistant Head (Daifu 大副)
Junior Assistant Head (Shōbu 少副)
Senior Aide (Daiyū 大佑)
Junior Aide (Shōyū 少佑)
Senior Recorder (Daishi 大史)

Daijōkan (太政官)

Prime Minister (Dajōdaijin 太政大臣)
Minister of the Left (Sadaijin 左大臣)
Minister of the Right (Udaijin 右大臣)
Minister of the Center (内大臣) [Later stood unfilled]
Secretary (Bettō 別当) of the Office of the Sovereign's Secretaries and Chamberlains (Kurōdo-dokoro 蔵人庁)
Major Counselor (Dainagon 大納言)
Middle Counselor (Chūnagon 中納言)
Royal Advisor (Sangi/Ōmatsurigoto-bito 参議) [8 positions]
Major Controller (Daiben 大弁)
Controller of the Left (Sadaiben 左大弁)
Controller of the Right (Udaiben 右大弁)
Middle Controller (Chūben 中弁)
Minor Controller (Shōben 少弁)
Lesser Counselor (Shōnagon 少納言)
Senior Outer Clerk (Daigeki 大外記)
Senior Recorder (Daishi 大史)
Junior Outer Clerk (Shōgaiki 少外記)
Junior Recorder (Shōshi 少史)

Divisions of the Capital (Kyōshiki 京職)

The Eight Ministries (Hasshō 八省)

Controlling Board of the Left (Sabenkan-kyoku 左弁官局)
Ministry of Central Affairs (Nakatsukasa-shō 中務省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Inspector (Daigenmotsu 大監物)
Chamberlain (Jijū 侍従)
Senior Inner Clerk (Dainaiki 大内記)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Inner Clerk (Shōnaiki 少内記)
Junior Inspector (Shōgenmotsu 少監物)
Chief Ministry Clerk (Sakan 主典)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Office of the Consort's Household Chūgūshiki 中宮職
Comissioner (Daibu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Bureau of Palace Storehouses (Kura-ryō 内蔵寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Skilled Artisans (Takumi-ryō 内匠寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Royal Attendants (Ōtoneri-ryō 大舎人寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Books and Drawings (Dzusho-ryō 図書寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of the Wardrobe and Court Ladies (Nuidono-ryō 縫殿寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Divination (Onmyō-ryō 陰陽寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Diviner (Onmyō 陰陽)
Doctor of Astronomy (Tenmon Hakase 天文博士)
Bureau Secretary (In 允)
Doctor of the Almanac (Koyomi Hakase 暦博士)
Doctor of Timekeeping (Rōkoku Hakase 漏刻博士)
Master of Divination (Onmyōji 陰陽師)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Ministry of Ceremonial (Shikibu-shō 式部省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Bureau of Education (Daigaku-ryō 大学寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Doctor of Letters (Monjō Hakase 文章博士)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Doctor of Sutras (Myōgyō Hakase 明経博士)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Doctor of Law (Myōhō Hakase 明法博士)
Assistant Teacher (Jokyō 助教)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Doctor of Music (On Hakase 音博士)
Doctor of Texts (Sho Hakase書博士)
Doctor of Numbers (San Hakase 算博士)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Ministry of Civil Administration (Jibu-shō 治部省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Bureau of Music (Uta-ryō 雅楽寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Buddhism and Aliens (Genba-ryō 玄蕃寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Royal Tombs (Shoryō-ryō 諸陵寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Ministry of Popular Affairs (Minbu-shō 民部省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Bureau of Statistics (Shukei-ryō 主計寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Taxation (Shuzei-ryō 主税寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Controlling Board of the Right (Ubenkan-kyoku 右弁官局)
Ministry of War (Hyōbu-shō 兵部省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secretary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Office of the Hayato (Hayato no Tsukasa 隼人司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Aide (Yū 佑)
Ministry of Justice (Gyōbu-shō 刑部省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Major Judge (Daihanji 大判事)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Middle Judge (Chūhanji 中判事)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Minor Judge (Shōhanji 少判事)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Judge (Hanji 判事)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Office of Prisons (Shūgoku no Tsukasa 囚獄司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Aide (Yū 佑)
Ministry of the Treasury (Ōkura-shō 大蔵省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Office of Weaving (Oribe no Tsukasa 織部司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Aide (Yū 佑)
Ministry of the Sovereign's Household (Kunai-shō 宮内省)
Minister (Kyō 卿)
Senior Assistant Minister (Taifu/Tayū 大輔)
Junior Assistant Minister (Shōbu 少輔)
Senior Secreatary (Daijō 大丞)
Junior Secretary (Shōjō 少丞)
Senior Recordkeeper (Dairoku? 大録)
Junior Recordkeeper (Shōroku? 少録)
Office of the Palace Table (Daizen-shiki 大膳職)
Master (Daibu/Daifu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of Carpentry (Moku-ryō 木工寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Bureau of the Palace Kitchen (Ōi-ryō 大炊寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Bureau Secretary (In 允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Bureau of Palace Equipment (Tonoma-ryō 主殿寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Bureau Secretary (In 允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Bureau of Palace Upkeep (Kamon-ryō 掃部寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Bureau Secretary (In 允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Bureau of Medicine (Tenyaku-ryō 典薬寮)
Chief (Kami 頭)
Attending Physician (Shii 侍医)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Master Physician (I-hakase 医博士)
Physician (Ishi 医師)
Acupunturist (Hari Hakase 針博士)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Office of the Royal Family (Ōkimi no Tsukasa 正親司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Office of Sake (Zōshu no Tsukasa 造酒司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Office of the Royal Table (Naizen no Tsukasa 内膳司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Chief Clerk of the Table (Naizen no Kami 奉膳)
Clerk of the Table (Tenzen 典膳)
Office of the Palace Women (Uneme no Tsukasa 妥女司)
Chief (Shō 正)
Aide (Yū 佑)
Office of Water (Mondono-kyoku 主水司)
Chief (Shō 正)

Board of Censors (Danjō-dai 弾正台)

President (In 尹)
Sr. Assistant President (Daihitsu 大弼)
Jr. Assistant President (Shōhitsu 少弼)
Senior Clerk (Daiso 大疏)
Junior Clerk (Shōzo 少疏)

Left Division of the Inner Palace Guards (Sakon'e-fu 左近衛府)

Major Captain (Taishō 大将)
Middle Captain (Chūjō 中将)
Minor Captain (Shōshō 少将)
Lieutenant (Shōkan 将監)
Assistant Lieutenant (Shōzō 将曹)

Right Division of the Inner Palace Guards (Ukon'e-fu 右近衛府) :Major Captain (Taishō 大将)

Middle Captain (Chūjō 中将)
Minor Captain (Shōshō 少将)
Lieutenant (Shōkan 将監)
Assistant Lieutenant (Shōzō 将曹)

Left Division of the Outer Palace Guards (Saemon-fu 左衛門府)

Captain (Kami 督)
Assistant Captain (Suke 佐)
Sr. Lieutenant (Daijō 大尉)
Junior Lieutenant (Shōjō 少尉)
Senior Assistant Lieutenant (Daishi 大志)
Junior Assistant Lieutenant (Shōshō 少志)

Right Division of the Outer Palace Guards (Uemon-fu 右衛門府)

Captain (Kami 督)
Assistant Captain (Suke 佐)
Sr. Lieutenant (Daijō 大尉)
Junior Lieutenant (Shōjō 少尉)
Senior Assistant Lieutenant (Daishi 大志)
Junior Assistant Lieutenant (Shōshō 少志)

Left Division of the Middle Palace Guards (Sahyōe-fu 左兵衛府)

Captain (Kami 督)
Assistant Captain (Suke 佐)
Sr. Lieutenant (Daijō 大尉)
Junior Lieutenant (Shōjō 少尉)
Senior Assistant Lieutenant (Daishi 大志)
Junior Assistant Lieutenant (Shōshō 少志)

Right Division of the Middle Palace Guards (Uhyōe-fu 右兵衛府)

Captain (Kami 督)
Assistant Captain (Suke 佐)
Sr. Lieutenant (Daijō 大尉)
Junior Lieutenant (Shōjō 少尉)
Senior Assistant Lieutenant (Daishi 大志)
Junior Assistant Lieutenant (Shōshō 少志)

Bureau of the Left Stables (Sama-ryō 左馬寮)

Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shō In 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Bureau of the Right Stables (Ume-ryō 右馬寮)

Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shōin 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Bureau of the Left Military Storehouses (Sahyōgo-ryō 左兵庫寮)

Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shōin 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Bureau of the Right Military Storehouses (Uhyōgo-ryō 右兵庫寮)

Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shōin 少允)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Office of the High Priestess of Ise (Saigū-ryō 斎宮寮)

Chief (Kami 頭)
Assistant Director (Suke 助)
Senior Bureau Secretary (Daiin 大允)
Junior Bureau Secretary (Shōin 少允)
Magistrate (Jō 判官)
Clerk (Soku 属)

Office of the High Priestess of Kamo (Saiin no Tsukasa斎院司)

Secretary (Chōkan 長官)
Undersecretary (Jikan 次官)

Office of Palace Repairs (Shurishiki 修理職)

Comissioner (Daibu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Office of the Crown Prince's Quarters (Tōgūbō 春宮坊)

Comissioner (Daibu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Women's Quarters of the Palace (Kōkyū 後宮)

Lady of the Storehouse (Shōzō 尚蔵)
Lady of Tables (Shōzen 尚膳)
Lady of Sewing (Shōhō 尚縫)
Consort (Nyōgo 女御)
Clothing Attendant (Koromogae 更衣)
Table Attendant (Tenzen 典膳)
Sewing Attendant (Tenhō? 典縫)
Lady of Letters (Shōsho 尚書)
Lady (Shōden 尚殿)
Sake-Serving Lady (Shōjū 尚酒)

Palace Attendants Office (Naishi 内侍司)

Lady-in-Waiting (Naishi no kami 尚侍)
Handmaid (Naishi no suke 典侍)
Assistant Handmaid (Naishi no Jō 掌侍)

Crown Prince's Quarters (Tōgū-bō 春宮坊)

Head Tutor (Fū 傳)
Teacher of the Classics (Gakushi 学士)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)

Outside Offices (Ryōge no Kan 令外官)

Office of Investigators of the Records of Outgoing Officials (Kageyushi-chō 勘解由使庁)
Secretary (Chōkan 長官)
Undersecretary (Jikan 次官)
Magistrate (Jō 判官)
Chief Ministry Clerk (Sakan 主典)
Office of Police and Judicial Chief (Kebiishi-chō 検非違使庁)
Secretary (Bettō 別当)
Assistant Captain (Suke 佐)
Sr. Lieutenant (Daijō 大尉)
Junior Lieutenant (Shōjō 少尉)
Senior Assistant Lieutenant (Daishi 大志)
Junior Assistant Lieutenant (Shōshō 少志)
Office of the Sovereign's Secretaries and Chamberlains (Kurōdo-dokoro 蔵人庁)
Secretary (Bettō 別当)
Chief (Kami 頭)

Regional Divisions (Chihōkan 地方官)

Left [Eastern] Capital Offices (Sakyōshiki 左京職)
Comissioner (Daibu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Right [Western] Capital Offices (Ukyōshiki 右京職)
Comissioner (Daibu 大夫)
Assistant Master (Suke 亮)
Senior Office Secretary (Daijin 大進)
Junior Office Secretary (Shōshin 少進)
Senior Officer (Daisoku? 大属)
Junior Officer (Shōsoku? 少属)
Dazai-fu (大宰府)
Viceroy (Sochi 帥)
Senior Assistant Governor General (Daini 大弐)
Jr. Assistant Governor General (Shōni 少弐)
Senior Overseer (Daikan 大監)
Junior Overseer (Shōkan 少監)
Senior Clerk (Daiten 大典)
Junior Clerk (Shōten 少典)
Provincial Offices (Kokushi OR Kuni-no-tsukasa 国司)
Provincial Governor (Kami 守)
Assistant Provincial Governor (Suke 介)
Senior Provincial Inspector (Daien 大掾)
Junior Provincial Inspector (Shōen 少掾)
Senior Provincial Administrator (Daimoku 大目)
Junior Provinicial Administrator (Shōmoku 少目)
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