As a youth, Qin was taught martial skills and literacy by her father. She later married a native tribal chieftain in Sichuan, and following the death of her husband, led his troops to Beijing to face the Manchu invaders. She later also led men in defense of Sichuan against the rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong. Her daughter-in-law rose to prominence as a military leader as well, before being killed in battle in Henan province.
- Jonathan Spence, The Search for Modern China, Second Edition, W.W. Norton & Co. (1999), 45.