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Difference between revisions of "Kyoto"

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'''Kyoto''' was where the Imperial court was located from 794 to 1869.
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*Japanese: 京都 ''(Kyouto)''
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*''Other names:'' 平安京 ''(Heian-kyou)'', 京市 ''(Keishi)'', 都 ''(Miyako)''
  
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'''Kyoto''' was the Imperial capital of Japan from [[794]] to [[1869]], though the archipelago was governed from elsewhere during the [[Kamakura shogunate|Kamakura]] (1185-1333) and [[Tokugawa shogunate]]s (1603-1868). It served as a major cultural and religious center throughout history, and continues to do so today, playing an important role economically as well during various periods.
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Though commonly known as Kyoto today, the city was historically far more commonly called by other names. Established as Heian-kyô (i.e. the Heian capital), after which the [[Heian period]] (794-1185) of history is named, the city was frequently called Miyako or Keishi, both of which can be translated as "capital city," through the [[Edo period]].
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==Geography==
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Kyoto was built on the model of the Chinese city of [[Chang'an]] (today called Xi'an), its location carefully chosen and layout carefully arranged according to Chinese concepts of geomancy. The center of the city is for the most part laid out in a grid, with the [[Kyoto Imperial Palace|Imperial Palace]] at the center, its gates facing the cardinal directions. [[Buddhist temple]]s in the mountains on the eastern side of the city (the [[Higashiyama]] area) were purposefully erected there to defend the city from spiritual dangers and corruptive forces which are traditionally believed to flow from that direction.
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The [[Kamo River]], which enters the city from the north and passes between the two [[Kamo Shrines]] near the northern edge of the ancient city, originally marked the eastern edge of Heian-kyô, though the city later expanded beyond it.
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*Higashi-yama
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*Other temples of note
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*Gion, other cultural centers
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*Geographic distribution of kuge, samurai, commoner residences/districts
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*Nijô-jô
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==History==
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Heian-kyô was built with the express purpose of becoming the seat of Imperial power, and became the capital in 794, marking the end of the [[Nara period]].
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It served as the political capital, and as the economic, religious, and cultural center of the archipelago, until 1185, when the [[Minamoto clan]] established the first [[shogunate]] in [[Kamakura]]. Kyoto would continue to be of great importance economically, culturally, and religiously, but would not, with brief exceptions, serve again as the sole political center.
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Kyoto saw much violence and destruction over the centuries, both from wars and battles, as well as from natural disasters. Various rebellions of the late Heian period, along with significant elements of the Genpei War of the 12th century and [[Nanboku-cho|Nanboku-chô Wars]] of the 14th century, took place in Kyoto. However, the city saw the worst destruction it would ever suffer in war during the [[Onin War|Ônin War]] (1467-77), which took place primarily in the city's streets. Many of the homes of the city's [[samurai]] and ''[[kuge]]'' were transformed into fortresses; wood, bamboo, and earthworks were used to construct walls and other defenses, and the streets themselves were torn up to form ditches and trenches. The city would not be fully rebuilt and recovered for several decades afterwards.
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Along with [[Edo]] and [[Osaka]], Kyoto was one of the archipelago's three primary centers of commerce and urban commoner culture during the Edo period. ''[[Ukiyo-e]]'', [[kabuki]], ''[[joruri|jôruri]]'' (puppet theatre), and various new forms of literature, along with the various arts and entertainments of the pleasure districts, thrived alongside older, more traditional arts, many of them developing into distinct forms and styles exclusive to Kyoto, reflecting a decidedly more reserved, traditional, and slower pace and lifestyle than their Edo and Osaka cousins.
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*Shinsengumi
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*Kobu gattai
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The final Tokugawa shogun, [[Tokugawa Yoshinobu]], declared his resignation and the abolition of the shogunate while in Kyoto, having never stepped foot in Edo as shogun. For the first time in over a thousand years, the Imperial Court was moved, this time from Kyoto to Edo, newly renamed as Tokyo, marking the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the [[Meiji period]].
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==Culture==
  
 
[[Category:Cities and Towns]]
 
[[Category:Cities and Towns]]
 
{{stub}}
 
{{stub}}

Revision as of 09:46, 16 January 2008

  • Japanese: 京都 (Kyouto)
  • Other names: 平安京 (Heian-kyou), 京市 (Keishi), 都 (Miyako)

Kyoto was the Imperial capital of Japan from 794 to 1869, though the archipelago was governed from elsewhere during the Kamakura (1185-1333) and Tokugawa shogunates (1603-1868). It served as a major cultural and religious center throughout history, and continues to do so today, playing an important role economically as well during various periods.

Though commonly known as Kyoto today, the city was historically far more commonly called by other names. Established as Heian-kyô (i.e. the Heian capital), after which the Heian period (794-1185) of history is named, the city was frequently called Miyako or Keishi, both of which can be translated as "capital city," through the Edo period.

Geography

Kyoto was built on the model of the Chinese city of Chang'an (today called Xi'an), its location carefully chosen and layout carefully arranged according to Chinese concepts of geomancy. The center of the city is for the most part laid out in a grid, with the Imperial Palace at the center, its gates facing the cardinal directions. Buddhist temples in the mountains on the eastern side of the city (the Higashiyama area) were purposefully erected there to defend the city from spiritual dangers and corruptive forces which are traditionally believed to flow from that direction.

The Kamo River, which enters the city from the north and passes between the two Kamo Shrines near the northern edge of the ancient city, originally marked the eastern edge of Heian-kyô, though the city later expanded beyond it.

  • Higashi-yama
  • Other temples of note
  • Gion, other cultural centers
  • Geographic distribution of kuge, samurai, commoner residences/districts
  • Nijô-jô

History

Heian-kyô was built with the express purpose of becoming the seat of Imperial power, and became the capital in 794, marking the end of the Nara period.

It served as the political capital, and as the economic, religious, and cultural center of the archipelago, until 1185, when the Minamoto clan established the first shogunate in Kamakura. Kyoto would continue to be of great importance economically, culturally, and religiously, but would not, with brief exceptions, serve again as the sole political center.

Kyoto saw much violence and destruction over the centuries, both from wars and battles, as well as from natural disasters. Various rebellions of the late Heian period, along with significant elements of the Genpei War of the 12th century and Nanboku-chô Wars of the 14th century, took place in Kyoto. However, the city saw the worst destruction it would ever suffer in war during the Ônin War (1467-77), which took place primarily in the city's streets. Many of the homes of the city's samurai and kuge were transformed into fortresses; wood, bamboo, and earthworks were used to construct walls and other defenses, and the streets themselves were torn up to form ditches and trenches. The city would not be fully rebuilt and recovered for several decades afterwards.

Along with Edo and Osaka, Kyoto was one of the archipelago's three primary centers of commerce and urban commoner culture during the Edo period. Ukiyo-e, kabuki, jôruri (puppet theatre), and various new forms of literature, along with the various arts and entertainments of the pleasure districts, thrived alongside older, more traditional arts, many of them developing into distinct forms and styles exclusive to Kyoto, reflecting a decidedly more reserved, traditional, and slower pace and lifestyle than their Edo and Osaka cousins.

  • Shinsengumi
  • Kobu gattai

The final Tokugawa shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, declared his resignation and the abolition of the shogunate while in Kyoto, having never stepped foot in Edo as shogun. For the first time in over a thousand years, the Imperial Court was moved, this time from Kyoto to Edo, newly renamed as Tokyo, marking the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period.

Culture

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