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Hijikata Toshizo

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  • Born: 1835
  • Died: 1869
  • Ranks:Shinsengumi vice commander, Ezo Army Bugyo Nami
  • Other name: Naitô Hayato
  • Japanese:土方歳三義豊(Hijikata Toshizo Yoshitoyo)
Hijikata Toshizo statue in Hino

Contents

Shieikan

Hijikata Toshizo was born in a wealthy farmer family in Tama district, Musashi. He practiced Kenjutsu in many dojo while he was working as a medicine peddler. One day, Hijikata met Kondo Isami at Sato Hikogoro's dojo and he became a pupil of Tennen Rishin Ryu in 1851 and was officially enrolled at the school in 1859. His skill of the ryu-ha was just Mokuroku, however his name was listed on Bujutsu Eimei Roku which means he was known as a swordmaster in those days. In 1863, Hijikata and other Shieikan members joined Roshigumi.

Shinsengumi

Kondo Isami and Hijikata Toshizo ruled the Shinsengumi completely after eliminating Serizawa Kamo's Mito group.

Kyokuchu Hatto(The Shinsengumi Regulations) is believed to be Hijikata's idea. Many of Shinsengumi members lost their lives because of the strict regulations.

During the Ikedaya Affair, Hijikata's troop arrived at Ikedaya later than Kondo's troop. Hijikata first secured around Ikedaya to not let Aizu and Kuwana han samurai in. As the result, the Shinsengumi received all the fame and prizes.

Boshin war

Hijikata commanded the Shinsengumi at the Battle of Toba-Fushimi and the Battle of Yodo-Senryomatsu(1868 January) instead of Kondo Isami, who was wounded at that time. The Shinsengumi lost many members in those battles. Then Hijikata realized "The age of swords is over."

When Kondo was captured at Nagareyama, Hijikata went back to Edo, already occupied by the imperial army, to appeal to Katsu Kaishu for Kondo's life.

Hijikata then headed to Utsunomiya with several Shinsengumi members (Saito Hajime took most of the members to Aizu) , to join the Bakufu troops.

He injured his foot in April and was sent to Aizu. However he was unable to come back to the front line until August. Kondo's grave in Aizu was built during the time.

Hijikata Toshizo

Hakodate

Hijikata and Bakufu troops occupied Goryôkaku in October and Matsumae castle in November. They announced the new "Republic of Ezo" (Enomoto Takeaki as the president) and Hijikata was appointed to be the Ezo Army Bugyo Nami.

1869 March, they attacked Miyako bay to take over the battleship Kôtetsu, but failed.

In April, the Imperial troops started landing on Ezo. Hijikata was guarding Futamataguchi, but had to return Goryôkaku because the Imperial army was getting close to Goryôkaku.

1869/5/11, Hijikata took a small unit to save the Shinsengumi in Benten battery where they were surrounded by the the Imperial army. Hijikata was shot at Ippongi. His body is believed to be buried in Hekketsuhi or Ganjo-ji.

Two months after his death, his page Ichimura Tetsunosuke visited Sato Hikogoro's house and handed Hijikata's photograph, hair and death poem.

Hijikata's grave sites are

  • Sekiden-ji (Hino city.Tokyo)
  • Shomyo-ji (Hakodate city, Hokkaido)
  • Itabashi, Tokyo

Hijikata Toshizo's Swords

Hijikata in Fiction

Film

  • Moeyo Ken (燃えよ剣) 1966 (Director: Ichimura Taiichi)

Television

  • Shinsengumi Keppuroku (新選組血風録) NET 1965-66
  • Moeyo Ken (燃えよ剣) NET 1970
  • Shinsengumi Keppuroku (新選組血風録) ANB 1999
  • Shinsengumi! Hijikata Toshizo Saigo no 1nichi (新選組!! 土方歳三最期の一日) NHK 2006

Books

  • Shinsengumi Keppuroku (新選組血風録) Shiba Ryotaro
  • Moeyo Ken (燃えよ剣) Shiba Ryotaro
  • Wachigai-ya Itosato (輪違屋糸里) Asada Jiro
  • Hijikata Toshizo Sange (土方歳三散華) Hirose Niki
  • Baragaki (バラガキ) Nakaba Toshikazu
  • Toshizo Ikite Mata (歳三往きてまた) Akiyama Kano
  • Toshizo kara no dengon (歳三からの伝言) Kitahara Aiko
  • Hijikata Toshizo (土方歳三) Gaku Shinya
  • Hijikata Toshizo Ruten no ken (土方歳三流転の剣) Kimura Shinichi
  • Ibun Hijikata Toshizo no Saigo (異聞 土方歳三の最期 ) Nakamura Chuji
  • Kokuryu no Hitsugi (黒龍の柩) Kitakata Kenzo

Research Books

  • Shinsengumi Kumicho Retsuden (新選組組長列伝) Shinjinbutsu Oraisha
  • Hijikata Toshizo no Subete (土方歳三のすべて ) Shinjinbutsu Oraisha
  • Shinsengumi Meimeiden (新選組銘々伝) Shinjinbutsu Oraisha
  • Shison ga kataru Hijikata Toshizo (子孫が語る土方歳三) Hijikata Megumi
  • Haiyu no hito Hijikata Toshizo (俳遊の人・土方歳三) Kan Soji
  • Chronicle Hijikata Toshizo no 35nen (クロニクル土方歳三の35年) Kikuchi Akira
  • Hijikata Toshizo (土方歳三) Kawaide Shobo Shinsha
  • Hijikata Toshizo (土方歳三) Shinjinbutsu Oraisha

References

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