Members of the Chinese scholar-aristocracy typically had a series of different names; Japanese artists, Confucian scholars, and the like often emulated this system, adopting pseudonyms. Individuals often also had Buddhist or other posthumous names.
- Personal name 姓名 (C: xìngmíng, J: seimei) - one's standard family name and given name.
- Courtesy name 字 (C: zì, J: azana) - in China, one's adult name
- Art-name or pseudonym 号 (C: hào, J: gô) - a name one adopts as an artistic or scholarly pseudonym