Kaei 6 (嘉永六年)
Timeline of 1853
- Kaei 5/12/1-2 (Jan. 10-11) An American fleet (Black Ships) led by Commodore Matthew Perry make port at St. Helena.
- Kaei 5/12/15-25 (Jan. 24 - Feb. 3) Perry's fleet makes port at Capetown, in South Africa.
- 1853/1/11-21 Perry's fleet makes port in Mauritius.
- 1853/2/1-6 Perry's fleet makes port at Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
- 1853/2/16-20 Perry's fleet makes port at Singapore.
- 1853/2/29 Perry's fleet lands at Hong Kong or Macao.
- 1853/3/21 Perry's fleet leaves Hong Kong / Macao.
- 1853/3/27 Perry's fleet lands at Shanghai.
- 1853/4/10 Perry's fleet departs Shanghai.
- 1853/4/19 (May 26) Perry's fleet lands at Naha.
- 1853/4 The Ryukyuan royal regent visits Perry aboard ship and attempts to convince him to give up his intentions to visit Shuri castle. Perry denies Bettelheim's request to travel with him to Japan.
- 1853/4/23 (May 30) Several of Perry's men seize the main assembly hall / schoolhouse of Tomari, establishing it as an American residence.
- 1853/4/23 Perry begins an exploration of the other islands near Okinawa.
- 1863/4/26 (June 2) The Caprice from Perry's fleet departs Okinawa for Shanghai, carrying laundry, $800 to be deposited into the banks in the name of British missionary Bernard Bettelheim, and post, including a letter from Commodore Perry to the US Secretary of the Navy, and Bettleheim's first missives in 11 months.
- 1853/4/30 (June 6) Perry forces his way into Shuri castle, but is denied an audience with the king or queen mother.
- 1853/5 Perry holds a full-dress review of his fleet at Naha Harbor.
- 1853/5 Perry claims a portion of the Gokoku-ji complex where Bettelheim had been living as pasture for the fleet's flocks.
- 1853/5/3-24 (June 9-30) Perry explores the Ogasawara Islands, claims them for the United States, and returns to Okinawa.
- 1853/5/26 Perry departs Okinawa.
- 1853/6/2-12 (July 7-17) Perry makes his first visit to mainland Japan.
- 1853/6/3 Perry's fleet lands at Uraga near Edo, presents credentials from Pres. Fillmore to Tokugawa shogunate officials.
- 1853/6 Abe Masahiro reports on the arrival of the Black Ships to the Imperial Court.
- 1853/6/9 Perry delivers the formal letter from President Millard Fillmore, and states that he will return "in due course" to receive the emperor's reply.
- 1853/6/20 (July 25) Perry's fleet arrives in Ryûkyû for the third time.
- 1853/6/23 Perry meets with the Ryukyuan regent, and receives the formal response to his insistence that the kingdom allow for the construction of a coaling station at Naha and the free welcoming of American ships. The regent denies his request at first, but capitulates once the commodore threatens to seize Shuri castle.
- 1853/6/27 Perry departs Okinawa.
- 1853 July The shogunate consults various daimyô on the issue of opening the country. Tokugawa Nariaki of Mito han is appointed to oversee the country's naval defense.
- 1853/7/18 Russian embassy under Putyatin arrives in Nagasaki.
- 1853 August Construction begins on coastal fort at Shinagawa.
- 1853 September Ban on the construction of large ships is lifted.
- 1853/10/1 Two ships depart Miyako Island, carrying away 280 Chinese coolies who had hidden out on the island, bringing a resolution to the Robert Browne Incident of the previous year.
- 1853/10/23 Tokugawa Iesada becomes shogun.
- 1853/11/15 - 12/30 (Dec 15 - Jan 28) Perry's fleet makes its second expedition exploring Okinawa and its neighboring islands.
Other Events of 1853
- A tribute mission returning to Ryûkyû from China hides out in northern Fujian province for several months in order to avoid Taiping rebels.
- The Nien Rebellion breaks out in Anhui and Shandong provinces in China, continuing until 1868.
- The final tribute mission from Siam to Beijing (Qing China) takes place.
- An accidental shooting incident occurs in Unna magiri, in Ryûkyû.
Births and Deaths
- 1853/6/19 (July 24) Hugh Ellis of the USS Mississippi dies, and is buried in the Tomari International Cemetery in Naha.
- 1853/6/22 Shogun Tokugawa Ieyoshi dies (b. 1793).
- Jan Cock Blumhoff dies (b. 1779).
- Ernest Fenollosa is born (d. 1908).
- Painter Fuji Masazô is born (d. 1916).
- Hayashi Tadamasa, Paris-based art dealer, is born (d. 1906).
- Kimono dealer Kawashima Jinbei II is born (d. 1910).